Judges 17 Commentary

Open your Bible to Judges chapter 17. The 17th chapter and our second to last lesson in the book of Judges.

Judges 17:1-5

We’ve made it to the conclusion of the book. We’ve seen the progressive Canaanization of Israel throughout the first 16 chapters of this book. And we see more of this process in the chapters to follow. Let’s start reading in chapter 17, verse 1.

KJV Judges 17:1 ¶ And there was a man of mount Ephraim, whose name was Micah. 2 And he said unto his mother, The eleven hundred shekels of silver that were taken from thee, about which thou cursed(st), and spakest of also in mine ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it. And his mother said, Blessed be thou of the LORD, my son. 3 And when he had restored the eleven hundred shekels of silver to his mother, his mother said, I had wholly dedicated the silver unto the LORD from my hand for my son, to make a graven image and a molten image: now therefore I will restore it unto thee. 4 Yet he restored the money unto his mother; and his mother took two hundred shekels of silver, and gave them to the founder, who made thereof a graven image and a molten image: and they were in the house of Micah. 5 And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim [A Hebrew word for “household idols”], and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.

So, we’re introduced to a man in the hill country of Ephraim. At some point prior to this story he stole his mother’s money – 1100 shekels or pieces of silver. An upstanding gentleman, apparently. And when he secretly took the silver she uttered a curse against the one who stole it. Apparently that bothered Micah. So that’s why we see him confessing to his mother that he in fact had the money.

Well, the mother is pretty quick to forgive. And she’s so happy that she tries to reverse her curse. And so now she utters a blessing upon her son. And she does this IN THE NAME OF THE LORD. So, you might think this is a godly woman. If that’s what you originally thought, then I’m sure your proverbial jaw dropped when she directed that Micah take a bit of the money he stole and now returned… and make two idols – one graven or cut – probably made of wood. And one molten – or made of metal.

So, blessing in the name of Yahweh? The true God of Israel! And then… having idols made? These two things don’t mix. Yahweh revealed on Mount Sinai that he doesn’t want Israel to worship idols – whether they’re intended to represent him or not. He doesn’t want our worship to him to be filtered through or directed toward idols.

So, something’s definitely not right here. And you’ll be saying that a lot to yourself throughout this lesson. And you ought to. The narrator is taking us on a strange journey through the times of the judges to show us the utterly desperate condition of Israel during this time.

And it gets worse. Micah takes those idols and puts them into his house of gods. Now, God demanded to be worshiped in one central location in Israel. But Micah set up his own place to worship in the hill country of Ephraim. Now, in the centralized house of God, God wanted Levites to take care of the property and worship of that sanctuary. Micah doesn’t have a Levite – yet, at least. And so he just takes his son and makes him a priest.

Judges 17:6

So, things are a spiritual mess here. And if you want confirmation that that’s the case, read verse 6.

6 In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.

Think back to Samson – the subject of our lesson last week. He wanted to take a pagan Philistine wife. And his parents questioned him on that point. Remember his response to them? Literally, “she looks right in my eyes.” And apparently Samson wasn’t alone in this kind of practice. The narrator here says that everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

Why? One big reason is given – there’s no king. There’s no king to restrain the peoples’ evil. There’s no king to lead the people righteously. Israel needs a king.

But they don’t have one and so they’re doing whatever they think is right. Michah’s mom thought it was right to make idols. Micah thought it was right to have a house of gods and to consecrate his son as priest in that house.

Judges 17:7-10

Now, we move on to the next scene. Verse 7.

7 ¶ And there was a young man out of Bethlehemjudah of the family of Judah, who was a Levite, and he sojourned there. 8 And the man departed out of the city from Bethlehemjudah to sojourn where he could find a place: and he came to mount Ephraim to the house of Micah, as he journeyed. 9 And Micah said unto him, Whence comest thou? And he said unto him, I am a Levite of Bethlehemjudah, and I go to sojourn where I may find a place. 10 And Micah said unto him, Dwell with me, and be unto me a father and a priest, and I will give thee ten shekels of silver by the year [He did have about 900 left over from what he previously stole from his mom], and a suit of apparel, and thy victuals.

Let’s just take in the scene here. This man comes from Bethlehem just wandering around trying to find a place to live. Why did he leave? Was he forced out by Canaanites? That’s a very good possibility. Was he forced to leave because the people stopped providing for him? After all, the Levites were called to dedicated full-time service for the Lord. As a result they relied on God’s people to provide for them through their offerings and other means. Maybe the Israelites stopped supporting this Levite.

Whatever the case, this Levite is on the move. And he just happens upon Micah’s house of gods in the hills of Ephraim. And so Micah makes a proposition to the Levite. “Be a priest in my house of gods.”

Now, surely, any Levite would know that this was not right. A house of gods? No! Israel was supposed to be worshipping Yahweh at the Tabernacle. Not in a shrine full of idols. So, a Levite – one who was supposed to know the Law and teach others also – he, of all people, would have the sense to rebuke Micah. The Levite would be in the right, even, to lead the people in stoning this idolatrous man. That was God’s punishment for idolatry – stoning. That’s how much it provoked the Lord.

Judges 17:10-12

So… what does the Levite do? End of verse 10.

So the Levite went in. [What??] 11 And the Levite was content to dwell with the man; [Oh no.] and the young man was unto him [Micah] as one of his sons. 12 And Micah consecrated the Levite; and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah.

Wow. So that was not at all what we’d tend to think would happen. The Levite is as bad as the idolatrous Ephraimite, Micah. Well, maybe this Levite is just a bad egg. Maybe he descended from some no-name unspiritual father and grandfather. Just keep telling yourself that. We’ll discover the truth at the end of the story.

Judges 17:13

At any rate, I say, this situation was not at all what should have happened. It’s not in any way what the Lord would want to have happened. And so the irony is sharp when we see Micah’s interpretation of the scene we just witnessed. Verse 13.

13 Then said Micah, Now know I that the LORD will do me good, seeing I have a Levite to my priest.

Wow. Isn’t this just mixed up? Just like his mother, as we saw at the beginning of the story, Micah speaks of the Lord in glowing terms. Micah really believes that the Lord is blessing him – even though every action we’ve seen him involved in thus far is totally against the Lord’s stated desires and demands.

Have you run across a Micah before? A man who professes to know the Lord – who even can tell you story after story that “proves” that the Lord is with him and is blessing him. While at the same time, that man obviously has no real knowledge of the Lord. He might be experiencing blessings and good things in this life. And those things do come from the Lord. But he mistakes the Lord’s blessings with the Lord’s commendation. It’s as if some people think that receiving good things from God is proof that their life is pleasing to the Lord. That’s just not the case. “God sends rains on the just only.” Is that what Jesus said? No, God sends rain on the just AND the unjust. He’s good to all. So, his goodness doesn’t signal approval.

But to this day you’ll run into folks who think this way. Modern-day Micahs.

By the way, let’s just talk about Micah’s name for a moment. His Hebrew name is actually Micahyahu. It means “who is like Yah” – “who is like the Lord”. The name causes you to stop and think and answer that question. The answer is…? No one! No one is like the Lord. He’s glorious. Uniquely excellent. In a category by himself. But the idols that Micah made testify to the exact opposite – the Lord is just like the gods of the pagans. He’s like this wood and metal. It seems that Micah would answer the question posed by his own name – “Who is like the Lord” – with this answer – “all my idols! all my idols are like the Lord!”

Judges 16 Commentary

So, God responds to Samson’s faith and mercifully revives him. And he goes on to judge Israel for 20 years. The end! No, just kidding. I wish it was the end. But unfortunately we have one more chapter left. And it’s the worst one yet for Samson. Chapter 16, verse 1.

16:1 ¶ Then went Samson to Gaza, and saw there an harlot, and went in unto her. 2 And it was told the Gazites, saying, Samson is come hither. And they compassed him in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night, saying, In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him. 3 And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at midnight, and took the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of an hill that is before Hebron.

So in a way we see here again Samson delivering Israel from the Philistines. Only, the circumstances surrounding the deliverance are definitely a bit seedy. He again shows a lack of self-control – going to this nameless Philistine prostitute and spending the night. He seems to thoughtlessly put himself in harm’s way. It’s like he’s flirting with destruction. Maybe he thinks it’s fun.

But he does manage to escape. And he carries away their city gate. This would have been devastating for the people of Gaza. Without a gate, a city was vulnerable to attacks. And Samson takes that gate and travels basically across Israel from the Mediteranean Sea into the hill county on the east and just sets the gate down.

This is the essence of Samson – his incredible feats of strength leave you laughing with joy and amazement… while his excess and recklessness leave you in tears.

Judges 16:4-31

And this last episode in his life that we’re about to read gives us more sorrow than laughter. Finally, after three nameless women in his life, Samson is associated with a woman who’s given a name by the narrator. Her name is Delilah. Verse 4.

4 ¶ And it came to pass afterward, that he loved a woman in the valley of Sorek, whose name was Delilah. 5 And the lords of the Philistines came up unto her, and said unto her, Entice him, and see wherein his great strength lieth, and by what means we may prevail against him, that we may bind him to afflict him: and we will give thee every one of us eleven hundred pieces of silver.

 6 And Delilah said to Samson, Tell me, I pray thee, wherein thy great strength lieth, and wherewith thou mightest be bound to afflict thee. [Can you believe she just said that? She gives away her motive for finding out the source of his strength. Samson would never fall for that! Would he?…]

 7 And Samson said unto her, If they bind me with seven green withs [Or cords] that were never dried, then shall I be weak, and be as another man. 8 Then the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven green withs which had not been dried, and she bound him with them. 9 Now there were men lying in wait, abiding with her in the chamber. And she said unto him, The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. And he brake the withs, as a thread of tow is broken when it toucheth the fire. So his strength was not known.

OK, joke’s over, Samson. Let’s just be done with this game. It’s dangerous. Isn’t that how you feel? But Samson isn’t done playing his dangerous game. Round 2.

 10 ¶ And Delilah said unto Samson, Behold, thou hast mocked me, and told me lies: now tell me, I pray thee, wherewith thou mightest be bound.

 11 And he said unto her, If they bind me fast with new ropes that never were occupied, then shall I be weak, and be as another man. 12 Delilah therefore took new ropes, and bound him therewith, and said unto him, The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. And there were liers in wait abiding in the chamber. And he brake them from off his arms like a thread.

OK, this is no game. There are Philistines in the house. Samson, just get out of there! But he’s goes on to Round 3 of the game.

 13 ¶ And Delilah said unto Samson, Hitherto thou hast mocked me, and told me lies: tell me wherewith thou mightest be bound.

And he said unto her, If thou weavest the seven locks of my head with the web. 14 And she fastened it with the pin, and said unto him, The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. And he awaked out of his sleep, and went away with the pin of the beam, and with the web.

Oh no. He’s getting the hair involved. Don’t talk about your hair, brother! That is where your strength lies! Don’t even let them touch it. Why is this guy flirting with ruin? Well, he does. So on to the last round. Round 4.

 15 ¶ And she said unto him, How canst thou say, I love thee, when thine heart is not with me? thou hast mocked me these three times, and hast not told me wherein thy great strength lieth.

 16 And it came to pass, when she pressed him daily with her words, and urged him, so that his soul was vexed unto death; [She annoyed him to death. So he caves to the pressure.] 17 That he told her all his heart, and said unto her, There hath not come a razor upon mine head; for I have been a Nazarite unto God from my mother’s womb: if I be shaven, then my strength will go from me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man.

I can hardly believe what we just witnessed. Samson knows Delilah is trying to hand him over to the Philistines. Why in the world would he stay wih her and reveal the source of his strength? Why would he tell her how he could lose his power?

But he does tell her. And she brings someone to shave his head. And Samson presumptously awakes as if all is well – but it’s not. His strength is gone. He’s played with fire and now he’s getting burned. And so the Philistines put out his two eyes – remember, the ones that got him into so much trouble with all these Philistine women? The Philstines bind him and force this once mighty judge of Israel to grind grain in their prison.

But his hair does begin to grow back. That’s what we’re told in verse 22. I wonder why that’s significant…

23 ¶ Then the lords of the Philistines gathered them together for to offer a great sacrifice unto Dagon their god, and to rejoice: for they said, Our god hath delivered Samson our enemy into our hand. [They got that wrong. Actually the Lord did it.] 24 And when the people saw him, they praised their god: for they said, Our god hath delivered into our hands our enemy, and the destroyer of our country, which slew many of us. [Though far fewer than he should have.] 25 And it came to pass, when their hearts were merry, that they said, Call for Samson, that he may make us sport. And they called for Samson out of the prison house; and he made them sport: and they set him between the pillars. [Uh-oh. Apparently the Philistines don’t know that Samson’s strength has returned.] 26 And Samson said unto the lad that held him by the hand, Suffer me that I may feel the pillars whereupon the house standeth, that I may lean upon them. [Can you sense the suspense? Samson’s strong again. He’s holding the pillars – the support – of the building. And the suspense keeps building.]

27 Now the house was full of men and women; and all the lords of the Philistines were there; and there were upon the roof about three thousand men and women, that beheld while Samson made sport. [The roof, I say – the one supported by the pillars that this supernaturally strong man is holding…] 28 ¶ And Samson called unto the LORD, and said, O Lord GOD, remember me, I pray thee, and strengthen me, I pray thee, only this once, O God, [That sounds genuine. And I think it is. This is what God wanted to do for Samson throughout his life. He did strenghten Samson. He wanted to deliver Israel through him. So this is a somewhat encouraging prayer. But listen to Samson’s reasoning for asking the Lord for strength.] that I may be at once avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes. [So, even now it’s all about personal revenge. They took my eyes so I’m going to kill them. Nevertheless, the Lord hears Samson.] 29 And Samson took hold of the two middle pillars upon which the house stood, and on which it was borne up, of the one with his right hand, and of the other with his left. 30 And Samson said, Let me die with the Philistines. [It’s a love/hate relationship, apparently. He loves them so much that he’s amongst them all the time. But he also hates them and wants to take vengeance on them.] And he bowed himself with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon all the people that were therein. So the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life. [Again, that’s more of a commentary on Samson’s ineffective judging of Israel during his life than on his bravery in death.]

31 Then his brethren and all the house of his father came down, and took him, and brought him up, and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the buryingplace of Manoah his father. And he judged Israel twenty years.

So, we’ve just witnessed probably the most disappointing of the judges. And the disappointment doesn’t end there. Next time we’ll see more hi-jinks from the tribe from which Samson originated – the wandering tribe of Dan.

Judges 15 Commentary

So, Samson gets angry, kills a few Philistines, and then leaves his wife. His wife is given to another man, without him knowing. Then we enter chapter 15, verse 1.

15:1 ¶ But it came to pass within a while after, in the time of wheat harvest, that Samson visited his wife with a kid; and he said, I will go in to my wife into the chamber. But her father would not suffer him to go in. 2 And her father said, I verily thought that thou hadst utterly hated her; therefore I gave her to thy companion: is not her younger sister fairer than she? take her, I pray thee, instead of her. 3 And Samson said concerning them, Now shall I be more blameless than the Philistines, though I do them a displeasure. 4 And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst between two tails. 5 And when he had set the brands on fire, he let them go into the standing corn of the Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks, and also the standing corn, with the vineyards and olives. 6 Then the Philistines said, Who hath done this? And they answered, Samson, the son in law of the Timnite, because he had taken his wife, and given her to his companion. And the Philistines came up, and burnt her and her father with fire. 7 And Samson said unto them, Though ye have done this, yet will I be avenged of you, and after that I will cease. 8 And he smote them hip and thigh with a great slaughter: and he went down and dwelt in the top of the rock Etam.

So, Samson again here is I suppose delivering Israel. Although, it doesn’t say he killed any Philistines. He simply burns their fields during the dry wheat harvest. And he does it in such a creative – even playful – way. Tie foxes tail-to-tail and put a torch between them? Sounds like something that would amuse a little boy. And in the end, it’s Samson’s former wife and her father that are the only Philistines from which Israel is delivered.

Judges 15:9-13

Now, Samson escapes from that scene and the angry Philistines pursue him. Verse 9.

9 ¶ Then the Philistines went up, and pitched in Judah, and spread themselves in Lehi. [Which means “jawbone” by the way.] 10 And the men of Judah said, Why are ye come up against us? And they answered, To bind Samson are we come up, to do to him as he hath done to us. 11 Then three thousand men of Judah went to the top of the rock Etam, and said to Samson, Knowest thou not that the Philistines are rulers over us? what is this that thou hast done unto us? And he said unto them, [And note the element of childish personal vengeance here that matches the Philistines’ words — ] As they did unto me, so have I done unto them. 12 And they said unto him, We are come down to bind thee, that we may deliver thee into the hand of the Philistines. And Samson said unto them, Swear unto me, that ye will not fall upon me yourselves. 13 And they spake unto him, saying, No; but we will bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their hand: but surely we will not kill thee. And they bound him with two new cords, and brought him up from the rock.

This is really pitiful. The very nation which Samson is supposed to be judging or delivering is now coming to hand him over to the enemy. It’s sort of understandable. Samson really hasn’t been acting much like a judge. He hasn’t been a man that Israel could stand behind and follow. He’s been too consumed with his own lusts. He isn’t too concerned with serving God. He’s more interested in his own will. Sounds a lot like the nation Samson was sent to judge. The people got what they deserved in their “leader”.

Judges 15:14-17

So Judah binds Samson their judge and is now handing him over to the enemies. Verse 14.

14 ¶ And when he came unto Lehi [a.k.a. Jawbone], the Philistines shouted against him: and the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him, and the cords that were upon his arms became as flax that was burnt with fire, and his bands loosed from off his hands. 15 And he found a new jawbone [“Lehi”] of an ass, and put forth his hand, and took it, and slew a thousand men therewith. 16 And Samson said, With the jawbone of an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the jaw of an ass have I slain a thousand men. 17 And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking, that he cast away the jawbone out of his hand, and called that place Ramathlehi. [Or “Height of the Jawbone”]

Now, that was impressive. Yes, Samson did violate again his Nazirite vow by touching an unclean donkey jawbone. But he killed 1,000 Philistines. He evens sings a little song about it. The phrase “heaps upon heaps” is actually very difficult to translate. Samson literally says, “With the jawbone of the donkey, donkey, donkeys. With the jawbone of the donkey I have slain a thousand men.” And so many translations translate “donkey, donkeys” to “heaps upon heaps” – probably because that’s what would have been laying all around Samson – heaps of bodies. But I do wonder if Samson was just making a little song. You know – we have that song that says “Have you ever seen a lassy, a lassy, a lassy…” and it goes on. In this case, it would be like “With the jawbone of a donkey, donkey, donkeys…”

Judges 15:18-20

Well, whatever Samson is saying here, he killed a lot of Philistines. Finally. Well, what happens next? Verse 18.

18 ¶ And he was sore athirst, and called on the LORD, and said, Thou hast given this great deliverance into the hand of thy servant: and now shall I die for thirst, and fall into the hand of the uncircumcised? 19 But God clave an hollow place that was in the jaw [“Lehi”], and there came water thereout; and when he had drunk, his spirit came again, and he revived: wherefore he called the name thereof Enhakkore [“The Well of the One Who Cried Out”], which is in Lehi unto this day. 20 And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines twenty years.

It’s interesting that all of a sudden when Samson needs deliverance from the Lord that he starts speaking in spiritual language. He calls the Philistines “uncircumcised” – which describes them physically, but also spiritually. Samson is recognizing that they’re pagans who don’t trust Yahweh. But Samson hasn’t been too concerned about all of that until this point. Now he needs God to do something for him. So he’s going to talk the talk.

And despite that, Samson is demonstrating some faith right here, isn’t he? He’s calling out to Yahweh – the true God. He could have called out to Dagon, the Philistine god. He could have called out to any number of the deities that Israel was worshiping. But he cries out to the God of Israel. He exercises a measure of faith.

Judges 14 Summary

Open your Bible to the 14th chapter of the book of Judges. Judges, chapter 14.

This is our 11th lesson in this book. And this week we’re going to be continuing – and actually finishing! – what we started last week. Last week we talked about three minor judges and then the parents of our last major judge. Do you remember the names of the parents?

Well, there was the father whose name was Manoah. We never catch his wife’s name.

And you recall that these parents got some really exciting news. The wife was barren. But she was going to have a son. And he was to be a Nazirite from the womb. No grapes. No alcohol. No unclean things. No cutting his hair. And all this until he died while beginning to deliver Israel from the Philistines.

Judges 14:1-4

We were astonished and amazed! What kind of child would this be? What kind of judge, deliverer, savior, was Israel in for? So, let’s get a taste of what this final major judge is like. Chapter 14, verse 1.

KJV Judges 14:1 ¶ And Samson went down to Timnath, and saw a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the Philistines. 2 And he came up, and told his father and his mother, and said, I have seen a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the Philistines: now therefore get her for me to wife. 3 Then his father and his mother said unto him, Is there never a woman among the daughters of thy brethren, or among all my people, that thou goest to take a wife of the uncircumcised Philistines? And Samson said unto his father, Get her for me; for she pleaseth me well. 4 ¶ But his father and his mother knew not that it was of the LORD, that he sought an occasion against the Philistines: for at that time the Philistines had dominion over Israel.

Notice the concept of “sight” throughout Samson’s story. He sees a Philistine woman and that causes him to want to marry her. After his parents protest he shoots back a defense of his request – “she pleaseth me well” in the King James. In the Hebrew it’s literally “she’s straight in my eyes” – or “she’s right in my eyes”… Hey… that sounds familiar, doesn’t it? The concept of something being right in one’s own eyes. Yeah, actually that’s what Israel was doing in the days of the judges – whatever was straight or right in their own eyes. And Samson was no exception.

And, now, I’ll just admit that I’m a bit confused by verse 4. How could marrying a Philistine be “of the Lord”? It seems like that would be totally against the Lord’s will. And it was. So, how is Samson marrying a Philistine in any way “of the Lord”? Well, it has to do with the fact that someone is seeking an occasion against the Philistines. Either Samson or the Lord himself is seeking an occasion against the occupying Philistines. It’s probably referring to the Lord. So the idea is that Samson’s marrying a Philistine is the one way that God can finally get him to start delivering Israel from their enemies. That’s a sad commentary on Samson’s dedication to the Lord’s will for his life.

And, by the way, this is no proof text for justifying marrying a lost person or kind-of evangelistic dating or whatever bizarre ideas someone might come up with. Again, the book of Judges is no place to find justification for engaging in practices that are forbidden elsewhere in Scripture.

Judges 14:5-9

OK, so Samson has feasted his eyes on this Philistine girl and he’s gotten his parents to buy into the idea. Let’s see what happens next. Verse 5.

5 ¶ Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, to Timnath, and came to the vineyards of Timnath: and, behold, a young lion roared against him. [Not his parents. Just him. Note that.] 6 And the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him, and he rent him [The lion] as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his hand: but he told not his father or his mother what he had done. [So, Samson kept it a secret.] 7 And he went down, and talked with the woman; and she pleased Samson well. [Or, again literally, “she looked straight or right in his eyes.”] 8 And after a time he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see the carcase of the lion: [So, he comes back to that old dead lion.] and, behold, there was a swarm of bees and honey in the carcase of the lion. 9 And he took thereof in his hands, and went on eating, and came to his father and mother, and he gave them, and they did eat: but he told not them that he had taken the honey out of the carcase of the lion.

So, Samson is showing a disregard of his Nazarite status. He killed the lion with his hands. And that might be fine, though I believe that the animal would have become unclean once Samson killed it. But the worst part is that Samson comes back later and scrapes some honey out of the rotting carcasse of the lion. That was certainly unclean.

And remember where he met that lion – at the vineyards of Timnath. Now, I’d like to believe that Samson was just walking past the vineyards. But really, I do wonder if maybe he was popping some grapes into his mouth. If he was, he would have again been neglecting his Nazirite status.

So, what we’re seeing so far from this once-promising deliverer isn’t so impressive. A lack of concern for God’s will and a great desire to pursue his own will.

Judges 14:10-14

Alright, well, it’s time for Samson to get married to his pagan bride. Verse 10.

10 ¶ So his father went down unto the woman: and Samson made there a feast; for so used the young men to do. 11 And it came to pass, when they saw him, that they brought thirty companions to be with him. 12 And Samson said unto them, I will now put forth a riddle unto you: if ye can certainly declare it me within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty sheets and thirty change of garments: 13 But if ye cannot declare it me, then shall ye give me thirty sheets and thirty change of garments. And they said unto him, Put forth thy riddle, that we may hear it. 14 And he said unto them, Out of the eater came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness. And they could not in three days expound the riddle.

As I’ve studied Samson, I’ve been amused at his expressions. He’s pretty creative. We’ll see more of that later. But here he develops this riddle. “Out of the eating one came something to eat. Out of the strong one came something sweet.” That’s pretty clever. And apparently Samson intends to exploit the Philistines through this riddle. But if this is his grand plan to kill Philistines and deliver Israel, it’s pretty far short of what’s needed. I mean, taking clothes from the Philistines isn’t going to accomplish anything – except to earn Samson some extra clothes. And sadly I think he would have been happy if that’s all he got out of the deal. But God wouldn’t have been. And actually, neither would the Philistines.

Judges 14:15-20

15 ¶ And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they said unto Samson’s wife, Entice thy husband, that he may declare unto us the riddle, lest we burn thee and thy father’s house with fire: have ye called us to take that we have? is it not so? 16 And Samson’s wife wept before him, and said, Thou dost but hate me, and lovest me not: thou hast put forth a riddle unto the children of my people, and hast not told it me. And he said unto her, Behold, I have not told it my father nor my mother, and shall I tell it thee? 17 And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her, because she lay sore upon him: and she told the riddle to the children of her people. 18 And the men of the city said unto him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said unto them, If ye had not plowed with my heifer, ye had not found out my riddle. 19 And the Spirit of the LORD came upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon, and slew thirty men of them, and took their spoil, and gave change of garments unto them which expounded the riddle. And his anger was kindled, and he went up to his father’s house. 20 But Samson’s wife was given to his companion, whom he had used as his friend.

We see here a fatal flaw of Samson’s – as if we needed another one. But did you see how he caved to the pressure his new Canaanite wife exerted on him? The man who can kill a roaring lion with his bare hands can’t fend off the nagging of his pagan wife. So we see in Samson a general inability to resist. Perhaps it’s a lack of self-control and resolve. He goes after whatever looks right in his eyes. He’s physically strong. But he just won’t resist when he should.

So that’s one thing we see in this scene. We also see his creativity again. He’s poetic in his language. He uses imagery. Although it’s not very flattering to his new wife with the comment about the heifer.

And it’s in this scene where we finally see Samson delivering Israel. Well, sort of. I mean, he kills 30 Philistines. So that’s good. But he only does it because he lost the riddle contest. And he stops at 30. This man had almost endless physical power from God himself. What potential! Why stop at 30? Get rid of them all – end their oppression of God’s people once for all! But Samson doesn’t deliver Israel any more than his selfish desires lead him to do.

Judges 13 Commentary

And so – moving on from Abdon – I’ve kind of gotten ahead of myself. I’m talking about Samson dying and yet we haven’t even seen anything of his life yet. We’ll get to his life. But before we do, we need to go back even farther. Back to before Samson was even born. What were the circumstances surrounding his birth? We’re told in verse 1 of chapter 13.

13:1 ¶ And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD delivered them into the hand of the Philistines forty years.

Well, this is a familiar tune. We’ve seen this pattern numerous times now. But I want us to notice something here. In verse 1 we see sin and oppression. Then verse 2 starts talking about the deliverer that God will send. What’s missing? Israel sins. God sends oppression. God sends a deliverer. What’s the missing piece? The people don’t cry out to God. And this is after 40 years of Philistine oppression. And the people say nothing. What’s going on? I think what’s happening is that by this point Israel is getting comfortable with their oppression. Isn’t that a strange thought? That God’s people can become used to and even comfortable with the enemy’s influence and oppression? But that’s exactly what we see here. Israel is becoming accustomed to her slavery.

Judges 13:2

And God takes it upon himself to send a deliverer – a Savior for his people. But we’re not going to hear about the deliver himself to begin with. We’re told about his parents. Verse 2.

2 ¶ And there was a certain man of Zorah, of the family of the Danites, whose name was Manoah; and his wife was barren, and bare not.

Now, remember. The tribe of Dan has two territories. The one it was originally given was along the Mediteranean Sea just north of Judah. And that’s the territory that we’re talking about here. This part of the world was recently in the news quite a bit. This is the modern day area right around what’s called the Gaza Strip which is inhabited now – not by Philistines – but by Palestinians.

Alright, now there’s a man named Manoah. He’s a Danite. He has a wife. But for some reason we never get her name. In fact, Samson is associated with four women throughout his life and we know none of their names – except the last one – Delilah. Now, not only does this woman – Manoah’s wife – have no name – at least from our vantage point. She also has no children. She’s barren.

Judges 13:3-5

That’s unfortunate. I wonder if that will change. Read verse 3

3 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto the woman, and said unto her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son. 4 Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing: 5 For, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazarite unto God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines.

Wow. The Lord is going to open the barren womb of this woman so she can have a child! That’s exciting. By this point in the Old Testament, the Lord has done this with Sarah, Abraham’s wife. He did it with Rebekah, Isaac’s wife. And he did it with Rachel– Jacob’s wife. And this is now actually the first mention of barrenness since Rachel’s episode way back in Genesis 29.

Oh, there are two more references to barrenness. One in Exodus and one in Deuteronomy. They promise that no one in Israel – whether human or cattle – will be barren. But here we have a barren Israelite. Why? Well, those two references that promise a lack of barrenness –they’re given as one of the many blessings that God would shower upon Israel… If. They. Obeyed. Him. That’s the key! Obedience to the Lord.

And isn’t it fitting – that finally in the story of our last judge we have barrenness appear once more. And actually I’m surprised we haven’t seen it sooner. Israel has been disregarding God’s word for centuries at this point. And just now God is visiting their iniquities by sending barrenness. How incredibly patient he is.

And even now, at this point of the story, God is graciously going to reverse the barrenness of this woman. We don’t have any indication that God appeared to her in response to prayer – like he did with Elizabeth and Zacharias. He’s just going to do it – just like how he’s sending Israel a judge. Despite their silence and lack of prayer.

But God gives a condition. He’s going to allow her the joyful opportunity to bear a son. But neither she nor he is to eat anything related to grapes. They mustn’t drink alcohol. They can’t eat anything unclean. And the boy is not to cut his hair. Ever. Why? He’s going to be a Nazirite – from the womb ‘til the day of his death.

And you remember what Nazirites are. There was a stipulation in the Old Testament law that a man could make a vow to the Lord in which he wouldn’t eat or drink any grape products or alcohol. He would avoid ceremonial uncleanness. And all the while he was doing this he would leave his hair uncut. But this was usually a temporary situation. As far as I can tell no one would do this their whole life. And even if they did – they probably would have done so when they came to an age where they could chose to do it.

But things are different with this coming deliverer. He was to be consecrated and devoted to God before he was born until the day he died. So, no doubt this was exciting news! What kind of child would this be? A lifelong Nazirite! And this message is coming from an angel, no less! The angel of the Lord.

Judges 13:6-7

So, the woman hears this message. Then, verse 6.

6 Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came unto me, and his countenance was like the countenance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not whence he was, neither told he me his name: 7 But he said unto me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazarite to God from the womb to the day of his death.

Now, Manoah’s wife seems to leave out the prediction that Samson will begin to deliver Israel from the Philistines. But actually she does mention something that we don’t have the angel recorded as having said. And I think these two things are related. Manoah’s wife tells her husband that Samson will be a Nazirite from the womb to the day of his death. It’s as if his mother perceives that beginning to deliver Israel from the Philistines will terminate in Samson’s death. She substitutes the mention of one for the mention of the other.

Now, Manoah’s wife didn’t ask for the “man”s whereabouts or place of origin. And the man didn’t tell her his name. So, now we have two nameless characters in this story. But if she would have asked his name or origin, she would have been in for quite a shock! Because he’s none other than the Angel of the Lord. Again, many believe that the Angel of the Lord is the Lord himself.

Judges 13:8

Now, Manoah hears from his wife about the wonderful appearance of this man with his wonderful promise of a child. Then in verse 8

8 ¶ Then Manoah intreated the LORD, and said, O my Lord, let the man of God which thou didst send come again unto us, and teach us what we shall do unto the child that shall be born.

Why does Manoah need to hear from this man of God again? Is it not enough that God woud appear once to his wife and reveal what he did? His wife gave him all the details. Does he not trust her? Maybe he doesn’t trust God’s promise to her.

Judges 13:9

It seems like that’s the case. His stated request is to know basically the very things that God already revealed to his wife. So, I think we’re starting to see the character of Manoah. He’s not really trusting God’s revelation to his wife. And that’s not good. And yet God amazingly condescends to Manoah’s request. Verse 9

9 And God hearkened to the voice of Manoah; and the angel of God came again unto the woman as she sat in the field: but Manoah her husband was not with her.

Judges 13:10-12

So, God responds to Manoah’s request. But you can tell he doesn’t really like it. He does come back – but he comes back and appears to only… the woman. Not to Manoah. And surely God is able to appear to the right person – right? But here God deliberately chose to return only to Manoah’s wife, not to Manoah himself. So, verse 10

10 And the woman made haste, and ran, and shewed her husband, and said unto him, Behold, the man hath appeared unto me, that came unto me the other day. 11 And Manoah arose, and went after his wife, and came to the man, and said unto him, Art thou the man that spakest unto the woman? [And now, just think about this question. Manoah’s wife tells him that the man of God is back. And Manoah still comes and says basically, “Is my wife really telling me the truth? Are you the one who appeared to her before?” And what else can the Lord say besides what he responds. End of verse 11…] And he said, I am. 12 And Manoah said, Now let thy words come to pass. [Or it could be translated, “When your words come to pass…”] How shall we order the child, and how shall we do unto him?

Now, again, wasn’t this addressed already? The boy will be a Nazirite. While his mother is carrying him in her womb she must not eat or drink grape products or alcohol. She’s to stay away from unclean things. And the boy himself is to avoid cutting his hair until he dies delivering Israel from the Philistines. And, of course, being a Nazirite, he should also avoid unclean things himself – like honey from inside of dead lions, ahem – and he should avoid grapes and alcohol.

Judges 13:13-14

So, yes, the Lord did already address this with Manoah’s wife. And so the Lord’s response to his kind of doubting question is predictable. Verse 13

13 And the angel of the LORD said unto Manoah, Of all that I said unto the woman let her beware. [In other words, “I told your wife, Manoah. But let me repeat myself…”] 14 She may not eat of any thing that cometh of the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing: all that I commanded her let her observe.

And I assume that that last phrase would include the fact that their son will die delivering Israel from the Philistines and that he must not cut his hair.

Now, some things in biblical narratives are subtle. For instance, if this is the first time you’ve ever been challenged to consider that Manoah was actually a bit faithless you might still be struggling to see that in the text. But there are clues that this is the case.

Judges 13:15

And we receive some more clues as to Manoah’s character in the verses to follow. Watch the angel of the Lord – the Lord himself – really evade Manoah’s advances starting in verse 15. And ask yourself, “why?” Verse 15

15 ¶ And Manoah said unto the angel of the LORD, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid [Or a young goat] for thee.

Judges 13:16

Seems like an honorable gesture. I mean, after all, Abraham made the same offer to his heavenly visitors who promised that his barren wife Sarah would bear a son. And the Lord accepted it. And even in this book we saw Gideon offer to feed his divine messenger who was calling him to be a judge. And the Lord stayed. So, let’s see how the Lord responds to this seemingly good-hearted offer. Verse 16

 16 And the angel of the LORD said unto Manoah, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it unto the LORD. For Manoah knew not that he was an angel of the LORD.

So, what the Lord says here serves two purposes. It first starts to display to us that the Lord is really – as I said – evading Manoah’s advances. Manoah wants to offer a goat to this divine messenger. And that seems like it would meet with approval. But it doesn’t. The fact that the Lord seems to be rejecting Manoah’s attempt to honor him raises a question. Why? Why is the Lord resisting Manoah?

And so secondly, we see from the Lord’s response a clue as to why he’s not receiving Manoah’s offer positively. Manoah – end of verse 16 – still doesn’t know that this is the angel of the Lord he’s speaking to. Why is that a problem?

Manoah knows this is no ordinary messenger. His wife told him as much. She said he’s like an angel of God – very terrible. This messenger just appears when he will out of nowhere. And so I think by this point Manoah gets the hint that this messenger is divine in some way. And yet, “divinity” in Manoah’s day doesn’t include merely the Lord. When a man like Manoah thought of deities he’s likely thinking about a host of pagan false gods. In Manoah’s mind then, this messenger may be an emisary from any one of those gods.

Think that’s a stretch? How else do we get around the fact that Manoah is by now recognizing that there’s something extraordinary, something divine, something that would call for offering a sacrifice to this man. And yet he doesn’t know that this man is associated with the Lord – Yes, that he’s the Lord himself. If Manoah recognizes some deity in this person and yet doesn’t know that it’s the Lord, who is Manoah planning to honor? Not the Lord!

And so, the Lord is mindful that Manoah isn’t being orthodox in his practices or beliefs. And so, he resists Manoah’s offers. He corrects Manoah – If you offer an offering do it to the Lord – remember him? The God of Israel? The one Israel has been rejecting and disobeying for centuries now?

Judges 13:17-18

So, being rebuffed a bit, Manoah continues. Verse 17

17 And Manoah said unto the angel of the LORD, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour? 18 And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret?

Again, we see Manoah making an offer to do something for this messenger. And we’d be inclined to think that the offer is genuine and heart-felt. But the Lord’s reaction demonstrates otherwise. Now, Manoah asks for the angel’s name – like Jacob did when he wrestled the Lord.

So, why is it a problem to ask the name of the Lord? Well, there’s an idea that in ancient civilization knowing the name of a deity – and even feeding a deity like we just saw Manoah attempt earlier – would give the man who fed or knew the name of that deity – would give him power in some sense over that deity. It would at least give the man the ability to make requests of that deity and kind of manipulate him to do his will. Like – “I fed you or I know your name. So you better do good for me.” It’s a weird Canaanite belief and practice that some assume Manoah was engaging in here. Or at least he was trying to engage in it. But the Lord was having none of it.

Judges 13:19-21

So, with no name from his divine visitor and having been rebuffed in his offer to feed him or sacrifice to him, Manoah does what the visitor said – offer an offering to the Lord. We see that in verse 19

19 So Manoah took a kid with a meat offering, and offered it upon a rock unto the LORD: and the angel did wondrously; and Manoah and his wife looked on. 20 For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoah and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground. 21 ¶ But the angel of the LORD did no more appear to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was an angel of the LORD.

Judges 13:22

So, finally Manoah gets the identity of this messenger! He was the angel of the Lord. And getting that identity right causes Manoah great distress and fear. Verse 22.

22 And Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God.

Judges 13:23

You see this concern throughout the Old Testament – that if someone sees God he’ll die. And so the fear that Manoah’s expressing may be legitimate. Although it seems like whenever someone expresses this kind of fear in the Old Testament the person never actually dies. But anyway, Manoah is afraid. And his nameless wife comes to the rescue with some common sense reasoning to quell his fears. Verse 23.

23 But his wife said unto him, If the LORD were pleased to kill us, he would not have received a burnt offering and a meat offering at our hands, neither would he have shewed us all these things, nor would as at this time have told us such things as these.

Really, the woman’s words make sense. If God wanted to kill Manoah and his wife, why would he appear to them – not once, but twice? Why would he communicate to them that he was going to allow the woman to bear a son? The son would not be born and God’s promise would be nullified if the woman died. So, good for Manoah’s wife. She may not be incredibly theologically astute, but she does have some common sense.

Judges 13:24-25

And it turned out she was right. They didn’t die. And God’s promise came to pass. Verse 24.

24 And the woman bare a son, and called his name Samson: and the child grew, and the LORD blessed him. 25 And the Spirit of the LORD began to move him at times in the camp of Dan between Zorah and Eshtaol.

Now, we’re going to see some real weird stuff from this boy for the next three chapters. But for now, this is what we see. The Lord blessing him. The Lord blessed Samson. He was good to Samson. Samson had a good start. The Spirit of the Lord began to stir him up as he grew. The Lord apparently was very much involved with Samson.

Samson starts well. His birth is proclaimed by an angel. Yes, his father was faithless and manipulative. But his mother seemed to believe. And perhaps his father did eventually. The Lord was with Samson.

OK, now I’m going to ask you as I have before – imagine for a moment that you don’t know what’s coming next. You don’t know Samson’s life to follow. Aren’t you excited about this boy? I mean, his near miraculous birth? The fact that the Lord is blessing him? Israel’s surely in for a great deliverer. Or is she? We’ll see how this last deliverer fairs next time.

Judges 12 Commentary

The tragedy involving speech that started with Jephthah doesn’t end with Jephthah’s vow. For the sake of time I’m just going to summarize 12:1-7.

The Ephraimites make an appearance again. Remember when they came and contended with Gideon? Well they do the same to Jephthah. Gideon was very conciliatory to Ephraim’s proud complaining. But Jephthah has none of it. He gathers his men to fight Ephraim. Then Jephthah’s men station themselves at the crossing of the Jordan River. The Ephramites can’t pronounce this Hebrew word Shibboleth. They say Sibboleth. And all who can’t pronounce it right, Jephthah’s men kill. And they end up killing 42,000 Ephraimites.

So, moral of the story? Jephthah knew the Law. He could probably be teaching this Sunday School class if he were here. He knew the stories. He knew about the rules concerning vows. But his tongue gets him in trouble. With his tongue, he seals the death of his own daughter and brings his lineage to an end in Israel. And he’s not the only one with tongue troubles. The Ephraimites seal their own doom by not being able to pronounce the Hebrew Shin.

So, that’s Jephthah’s story. Are you ready for our last major judge? We’ll be talking about Samson next.

We started the “cycle of judges” back in chapter 3 with two major judges – Othniel and Ehud. They were followed by Shamgar the minor judge. Then we saw the two major judges Barak and Gideon. And they were followed by two minor judges – Tola and Jair. Then, last week we saw another major judge – Jephthah.

Judges 12:8-15

And he’s followed today by three minor judges. Let’s get acquanited with them in 12:8-15.

KJV Judges 12:8 ¶ And after him [That is, Jephthah] Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel. 9 And he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters, whom he sent abroad, and took in thirty daughters from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel seven years. 10 Then died Ibzan, and was buried at Bethlehem.

11 ¶ And after him Elon, a Zebulonite, judged Israel; and he judged Israel ten years. 12 And Elon the Zebulonite died, and was buried in Aijalon in the country of Zebulun.

13 ¶ And after him Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, judged Israel. 14 And he had forty sons and thirty nephews [Or that could be “grandsons”], that rode on threescore and ten ass colts: and he judged Israel eight years. 15 And Abdon the son of Hillel the Pirathonite died, and was buried in Pirathon in the land of Ephraim, in the mount [Or “hill country”] of the Amalekites.

Now, as always, the details of the minor judges are scant. So, we’ll try to piece some things together.

So we have the first judge from Bethlehem. The King James Version says that Ibzan sent his daughters abroad. Well, hey – it kind of sounds like he was getting his kids involved in Study Aboard opportunities. That sounds enriching. But no, unfortunately it wasn’t that positive. Ibzan sent his daughters abroad in the same sense that he – in verse 9 – took “daughters” or wives for his sons from abroad.

Well, what’s wrong with that? Remember the types of folks that were “abroad” – Canaanites, Perizites, Hivites, Jebusites, etc. And what made it a problem for Ibzan to get foreign wives for his sons and to give his daughters to foreign men wasn’t that these foreign people didn’t speak Hebrew or because they ate different foods than the Israelites. No, the problem was that these foreigners worshipped foreign gods. And the God of Israel isn’t alright with that.

And this man is a judge. He should know better. He’s supposed to be delivering Israel from foreigners and their false gods. But here he’s just going along with the idolatry. And the text gives us every indication that every single one of Ibzan’s children is either married or given in marriage to a pagan. That’s troubling.

Now, let me just point out one more thing about Ibzan. We’ve been talking about his children. How many did he have? At least 60. Now how does one woman – the wife of Ibzan – have 60 children? Answer? She doesn’t. What this means then is that Ibzan is polygamous.

So, we have a polygamous judge who has formed alliances with all sort of pagans by marrying sons and daughters off to them. Aren’t you sort of glad that Ibzan is a minor judge? I don’t think I want to hear any more about him.

Alright then. On to the next minor judge. And there is really hardly anything said about him. His name is Elon. He’s from Zebulun. And he dies and is burried in Zebulun. And that’s it. So, really, there’s nothing interesting in this judge’s life. Which is probably a good thing.

So, on to the next and last of our minor judges. Abdon. We’ve seen a minor judge do the kind of thing that he’s doing – having all these descendants riding on donkeys. Jair did it. And just like with Jair, I’m assuming that this is hinting at a desire to rule as king in Israel on the part of this man. So we’ve seen this kind of activity before. But the interesting unique thing that we see with Abdon relates to where he died. He died in Pirathon in the land of Ephraim. That’s where he was born. So, nothing strange on that point. But the interesting thing noted here is the last few words of verse 15. Pirathon apparently belonged to whom? The Israelites? No, actually. It belonged to Amalekites.

So, this judge is buried in a land belonging to Amalekites. Remember the Amalekites? They’re the ones who fought Israel in the wilderness after they came out of Egypt. And that ruthless act earned the Amalekites God’s eternal enmity. In Exodus 17:16 the Lord swears that he himself will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.

So, really, the only reason I’d expect to see an Israelite judge in a land owned by Amalekites would be to battle them. And I guess we could hope that that’s why Abdon was there. But to be buried in a particular place in the Old Testament usually means that that place was home to that individual. He was comfortable there. That was his base of operation. But how could Abdon have been comfortable in a place overrun – indeed OWNED – by God’s enemies.

So, based on these considerations – and the general downward progression that we see in the book of Judges – I think this is what we’re witnessing. Abdon was called by God to deliver God’s people from their enemies. He’s a Judge. And yet this man is more concerned with power – his own as well as his children’s. And rather than attacking the enemy, he’s actually quite comfortable with them. He’s happy to live with them. He’s happy to die with them. And he’s happy to be buried in their territory.

Now, I said he’s happy to die with the enemy. And that’s interesting in light of how the story of our next and last major judge ends. How does Samson’s life end? What were his last words? “Let me die with the Philistines!” Samson’s life was tragic. And so was his death. And in the end he dies like Abdon – amongst God’s enemies. Yet, even Samson is buried elsewhere – not with the Philistines – but in the grave of his father.

Judges 11 Commentary

The land of Israel east of the Jordan River needs a judge. Someone mighty. A warrior! We’re introduced to him in verse 1 of chapter 11.

11:1 ¶ Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty man of valour, [Oh, good! He sounds like a prime candidate to deliver Israel from her enemies!] and [Or “but”] he was the son of an harlot: [Oh, that’s not so attractive, is it? Well, let’s hear a little more about him.] and Gilead begat Jephthah. 2 And Gilead’s wife bare him [Gilead] sons; and his wife’s sons grew up, and they thrust out Jephthah, and said unto him, Thou shalt not inherit in our father’s house; for thou art the son of a strange woman. 3 Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him. [Got that so far? Jephthah is mighty. But he’s an illegitimate child. And his brothers chase him away so that he won’t receive an inheritance with them. So, he’s somewhat of a reject. But he’s not alone. Some vain or worthless men gather around him in the land of his exile. But those same brothers who chased Jepthah away will be wanting him back soon enough. Now,…]

4 ¶ And it came to pass in process of time, that the children of Ammon made war against Israel. [OK, so back to the story – in other words. Verses 1-3 were sort of an aside to bring us up to speed on the man whom Gildead would call to lead them. Now, let’s listen in on Jepthah’s calling by these very elders who chased him away years ago.] 5 And it was so, that when the children of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob: 6 And they said unto Jephthah, Come, and be our captain, that we may fight with the children of Ammon. 7 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, Did not ye hate me, and expel me out of my father’s house? and why are ye come unto me now when ye are in distress? 8 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon, and be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead. 9 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, If ye bring me home again to fight against the children of Ammon, and the LORD deliver them before me, shall I be your head? 10 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, The LORD be witness between us, if we do not so according to thy words. 11 Then Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead, and the people made him head and captain over them: and Jephthah uttered all his words before the LORD in Mizpeh.

There’s a very interesting parallel here in this part of the story. Notice the events between Jepthah and Gilead. Gilead rejects Jephthah. Then Gilead needs Jephthah. Then Gilead says to Jephthah: “We need you.” Jephthah: “You rejected me. Why are you calling on me now after you rejected me?” Gilead: “We’re in trouble. We need you back.” Does that kind of conversation sound familiar? It actually mirrors the dyanmics of Israel and the Lord. Can you see that? And, just like the Lord relented to Israel’s pleas, so does Jepthah.

Judges 11:12-13

Now, let’s watch him deliver Israel.

12 ¶ And Jephthah sent messengers unto the king of the children of Ammon, saying, What hast thou to do with me, that thou art come against me to fight in my land? [That’s interesting. Jepthah starts by talking. He doesn’t just immediately go into battle. He wants to discuss the situation with the enemy. Let’s see how the enemy responds.]

13 And the king of the children of Ammon answered unto the messengers of Jephthah, Because Israel took away my land, when they came up out of Egypt, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and unto Jordan: now therefore restore those lands again peaceably.

Judges 11:14-22

So now, the question becomes – is the king of Ammon right? Did Israel indeed take land from Ammon when they came up out of Egypt? Have you ever thought about that? Well, let’s see what Jepthah thinks.

14 And Jephthah sent messengers again unto the king of the children of Ammon: 15 And said unto him, Thus saith Jephthah, Israel took not away the land of Moab, nor the land of the children of Ammon: [By the way, Moab and Ammon descend from Lot’s two daughters.] 16 But when Israel came up from Egypt, and walked through the wilderness unto the Red sea, and came to Kadesh; 17 Then Israel sent messengers unto the king of Edom, saying, Let me, I pray thee, pass through thy land: but the king of Edom would not hearken thereto. And in like manner they sent unto the king of Moab: but he would not consent: and Israel abode in Kadesh. 18 Then they went along through the wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came by the east side of the land of Moab, and pitched on the other side of Arnon, but came not within the border of Moab: for Arnon was the border of Moab. 19 And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, the king of Heshbon; and Israel said unto him, Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy land into my place. 20 But Sihon trusted not Israel to pass through his coast: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and pitched in Jahaz, and fought against Israel. 21 And the LORD God of Israel delivered Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel, and they smote them: so Israel possessed all the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants of that country. 22 And they possessed all the coasts of the Amorites, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and from the wilderness even unto Jordan. [Which is the territory that the king of Ammon just mentioned as belonging to his people.]

Wow. That’s a lot of words. Jephthah rehearses Israel’s history as it relates to their coming to take the land of the Amorites.

And I’ll ask now what I asked about the king of Ammon and his statement – is Jephthah right? Who’s speaking the truth here?

There are some complications to this series of events and the retelling of them by these two men. First, we know from Deuteronomy 2:19 that God did not want Israel to take the Ammonites’ land. God said that he reserved that land for the sons of Lot – of whom the Ammonites were descendants. But then in Joshua 13:24-25 we learn that Moses gave the tribe of Gad half of the land of the Ammonites. So at first it sounds like Moses did wrong. Israel wasn’t supposed to take the land. But Moses and Israel took the land. Is that really what happened?

Actually, no. What really happened is this. Israel took the land of the Amorites. Remember – Sihon and Og were Amorites not Ammonites. But then — how does the author of Joshua say that Moses gave Gad half the land of Ammon? It’s because the land of Sihon and Og originally belonged to Ammon. But here’s what happened. Before Moses came up from the wilderness, the Amorites attacked the Ammonites and took part of their their land. This is actually recorded in the secular history of that time.

So, was Jephthah right? Yeah, I think he was. Was the king of Ammon right? Well, there’s no doubt that his people lost that land that became the Amorites’ possession and now for the past 300 years by this point had belonged to the Israelites. That land was theirs. But Israel didn’t take it from the Ammonites. The Amorites did. And then Israel took it from the Amorites.

Judges 11:23-31

Now, after giving this history lesson, Jephthah has some applications he wants the king of Ammon to make. He says…

23 So now the LORD God of Israel hath dispossessed the Amorites from before his people Israel, and shouldest thou possess it? 24 Wilt not thou possess that which Chemosh thy god giveth thee to possess? So whomsoever the LORD our God shall drive out from before us, them will we possess. [Now, I really don’t like Jephthah’s argument here. He’s basically putting Chemosh and Yahweh on the same level. Like – hey Ammon – your god gave you some land. Go ahead and possess it. And our God gave us some land. So we’re going to posses what he’s given to us.” Chemosh shouldn’t even enter the equation! He’s a false god. Forget about Chemosh. And besides, Chemosh isn’t even the god of Ammon. He’s the god of Moab! Milcom or Molech was the god of Ammon. So maybe Jephthah isn’t very well versed in Ammonite mythology. Now, Jephthah continues applying his message…] 25 And now art thou any thing better than Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab? did he ever strive against Israel, or did he ever fight against them, 26 [w]hile Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years? why therefore did ye not recover them within that time? 27 Wherefore I have not sinned against thee, but thou doest me wrong to war against me: the LORD the Judge be judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon. [OK, so that last statement of Jephthah was probably the best. May the Lord be the judge between us. So, here’s what I gather from this. Jephthah knows his Torah. He knows the stories of what God did for his people. And he can even teach others about it. I imagine that was a rare thing in the days of the judges. So, I think that’s commendable. Now, the king of Ammon gets this letter from Jephthah and here’s his reaction…] 28 Howbeit the king of the children of Ammon hearkened not unto the words of Jephthah which he sent him. [No response. So, the talking is over and now it’s time for Jephthah to fight to deliver God’s people.]

29 ¶ Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, [That’s the ½ tribe of Manasseh east of the Jordan.] and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon. [Again, Ammon is east of Gilead, which is east of the Jordan.] 30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands, 31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever [Or actually “whosoever” – it’s the male gender] cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD’S, and I will offer it [Or literally “him” – again male grammatical gender] up for a burnt offering.

Wait, what did Jephthah just do? Why did he make this vow? What or whom is he expecting to meet him when he returns? Maybe you think “a dog”. Well, any kosher Israelite isn’t going to have dogs. A cat maybe? Probably not. What other kind of animal would meet his owner? Cows probably wouldn’t. Would sheep or goats? Even if they would, would they really be living in Jephthah’s house? Would they be coming out his doors? They’re not domesticated. No, I think Jephthah is making a rash unreasonable dangerous vow. His vow to sacrifice whatever or whomever comes to meet him can probably include animals or humans. But why would he even take the chance? Maybe it’ll be a human and not an animal! Why make this vow to the Lord? Couldn’t he have just kept his mouth shut and delivered Israel? And he knows his Torah. He knows the books of Moses. He knows that a vow to the Lord must be kept.

Judges 11:32-33

Well, the battle ensues.

32 ¶ So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the LORD delivered them into his hands. 33 And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.

Wow, that was short. Then apparently, the writer didn’t want to focus on the battle itself. Well, what does he want to focus on?

Judges 11:34-40

Let’s keep reading.

34 ¶ And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house [And we’re mindful of his vow and dreading what or who is going to come out to meet him.], and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter. [Oh no. His only daughter. With her dies Jepthah’s lineage. She comes out to greet him. She’s happy for her father and comes out to celebrate the victory God gave him. But he certainy isn’t happy to see her.] 35 And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth unto the LORD, and I cannot go back. 36 And she said unto him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the LORD, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the LORD hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, even of the children of Ammon. 37 And she said unto her father, Let this thing be done for me: let me alone two months, that I may go up and down upon the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and my fellows. 38 And he said, Go. And he sent her away for two months: and she went with her companions, and bewailed her virginity upon the mountains. 39 And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Israel, 40 That the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year.

So, the question on everyone’s mind is – “did we really just see a judge in Israel sacrifice his daughter as a burnt offering?” As best I can tell, the answer is “Yes”. Some argue that Jephthah’s vow allowed for him to just dedicate his daughter to the Lord’s service. But if that were the case, why would she need two months to lament the fact that she wasn’t going to be married? Couldn’t she have done her lamenting after she was dedicated to the Lord’s service? No, I think what we see here is – in very discreet terms – Jephthah offering his daughter as a sacrifice.

That’s shocking. That couldn’t happen in Israel! That sounds like something the Canaanites would do – offer their children to their gods. Yes, and do you remember what we’re seeing in this book? The Progressive Canaanization of Israel. Through Jephthah’s ridiculous vow he ends up engaging in one of the most abhorrent actions of the Canaanites around Israel – child sacrifice. But couldn’t Jephthah have backed out of his vow? The law doesn’t allow for it. Making a vow to the Lord is serious and breaking it could result in equally serious consequences. But surely God didn’t approve of this! I know he wouldn’t have. But did you notice his silence? He doesn’t say a word as Jephthah makes and then carries out his unreasonable vow. So, God doesn’t approve of this. And at the same time I think we need to remember that there’s not much that God approved of in the days of the Judges.

Judges 10 Commentary

Open your Bibles to Judges chapter 10. This is our 9th lesson in this book. And we’re in the 10th chapter of the book of Judges.

And the last three lessons have covered Gideon and then his son Abimelech. And in those lessons we saw some shocking things. From Gideon we saw fearfulness and faithlessness. Remember the fleece and the pagan dream that Gideon overheard? We saw in-fighting amongst God’s people. Remember the Ephraimites, the men of Succoth, and the men of Penuel? And in these cases we saw some amount of brutality. There was also idolatry in Gideon’s day. Remember the ephod that Gideon made and which Israel then worshipped? But we also saw some amount of faith. I mean – Gideon did battle the Midianites – even if it took a lot of coaxing by the Lord.

However, when we came to the story of Abimelech we saw nothing positive. Abimelech himself seems to have played the role of the oppressor of God’s people. His story was marked by selfish vengeance and cruelty. The bit of brutality that we saw in his father was only magnified in the son, Abimelech. But he finally dies and we’re all relieved for that.

Now, remember – in the book of Judges we’re seeing the Progressive Caananization of Israel. Israel is God’s people. They’re being Canaanized – or becoming like the wicked godless pagans around them. And this is a progressive process. Israel is getting worse and worse.

Judges 10:1-5

With that in mind we’ll read about two minor judges in 10:1-5. Remember – they’re minor because there isn’t much written about them – not because they’re unimportant or were a different kind of judge. So, let’s read about these two…

[KJV Judges 10:1 ¶ And after Abimelech there arose to defend Israel Tola the son of Puah, the son of Dodo, a man of Issachar; and he dwelt in Shamir in mount Ephraim. 2 And he judged Israel twenty and three years, and died, and was buried in Shamir. 3 ¶ And after him arose Jair, a Gileadite, and judged Israel twenty and two years. 4 And he had thirty sons that rode on thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities, which are called Havothjair unto this day, which are in the land of Gilead. 5 And Jair died, and was buried in Camon.]

Our time is short and our lesson is long. So I’m not going to say much about these two men.

I’ll just point out a few interesting notes. Tola is from Issachar. But where was he buried? Mount Ephraim. That’s unusual. Usually we see Bible characters buried in their own tribal inheritance. Why did he move? I don’t know. But we’ll continue on.

Now, Jair – our second minor judge – is from Gilead – which is east of the Jordan River. And he actually sounds like he has kingly aspirations. He’s got all these children riding on donkeys and ruling these cities in Gilead. That’s a little alarming. It hearkens back to Abimelech.

And to wrap up our consideration of these two minor judges – I’ll just point out that these two areas – Ephraim and Gilead – are prominent in the story of Jepthah. So, these two minor judges get our minds thinking about these two geographic regions.

Judges 10:6

Alright. Now, judges come and judges go. These two minor judges came and went. And when judges go in this book the children of Israel go right back to doing evil. We see that happening in verse 6.

[6 ¶ And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.]

That’s a lot of gods. The text mentions seven groups of deities that Israel was serving. And of course within those seven groups there would likely be scores of deities. And this kind of promiscuity with these false deities leaves God – the true God – out of the equation. And this really is promiscuity. God had entered into a covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai. They were to be his and his alone. But they refused. And so God is justifiably angry.

Judges 10:7-9

And we see what his anger leads him to do in verses 7 through 9.

[7 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hands of the Philistines, and into the hands of the children of Ammon. 8 And that year they vexed and oppressed the children of Israel: eighteen years, all the children of Israel that were on the other side Jordan in the land of the Amorites, which is in Gilead. 9 Moreover the children of Ammon passed over Jordan to fight also against Judah, and against Benjamin, and against the house of Ephraim; so that Israel was sore distressed.]

Isn’t it amazing that the very people whose gods Israel is worshiping are the ones who come and oppress them? The nations that come to oppress them are listed as the Ammonites and the Philistines. In the story of Jepthah we hear about the Ammonites. And in the story of our next and last judge we hear about the Philistines.

Now, these Ammonites oppress and vex the Israelites living in Gilead – which was the home of Jair the minor judge. But the Ammonites don’t stop there. They move on over the Jordan to the west and terrorize Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim – all the southern tribes of Israel.

Judges 10:10

And as a result of this Israel has nowhere else to turn but to the Lord. The deities they’ve been serving are apparently too busy fighting for their own nation – Ammon to be precise – to have any concern for Israel. Israel’s mindset seems to be – “When all else fails, turn to Yahweh. He’ll bail us out.” And so that’s what they do in verse 10.

[10 ¶ And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, saying, We have sinned against thee, both because we have forsaken our God, and also served Baalim.]

Judges 10:11-14

Alright, now, at the beginning of this book we’d see God immediately send a judge when the people cried to him. Then with our last major judge – Gideon – God sent a prophet to rebuke the people. But he sent a deliverer anyway. But this time is a little different. God is a little more severe – and even sarcastic – this time. We see God’s response to Israel’s cry in verses 11 through 14.

[11 And the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Did not I deliver you from the Egyptians, and from the Amorites, from the children of Ammon, and from the Philistines? 12 The Zidonians also, and the Amalekites, and the Maonites, did oppress you; and ye cried to me, and I delivered you out of their hand. 13 Yet ye have forsaken me, and served other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no more. 14 Go and cry unto the gods which ye have chosen; let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation.]

God keeps delivering Israel when they cry to him. The Lord lists seven nations from which he delivered his people when they cried to him. And so God says that he’s had it. He’s done delivering Israel. Let me ask you – have you ever had it in your mind that sarcasm is always evil? Like, sarcasm is never called for in any situation? Well, if that’s your mindset – what do you make of verse 14? God is being downright sarcastic with Israel.

Judges 10:15-16

Now, with Gideon, when God sent a prophet to rebuke the people – we had no record of the people responding. But they do this time. And we see their response in verses 15 and 16.

[15 And the children of Israel said unto the LORD, We have sinned: do thou unto us whatsoever seemeth good unto thee; deliver us only, we pray thee, this day. 16 And they put away the strange gods from among them, and served the LORD: and his soul was grieved for the misery of Israel.]

So, this is some improvement. The people actually put away the false gods. But don’t be too encouraged. Idols that are discarded in times of distress are pretty easy to pick back up in times of ease. And Israel will pick them back up.

But notice that it wasn’t necessarily the putting away of idols that grieved and moved the Lord to take action anyway. It was Israel’s 18 years of misery – not even their repentance: genuine or not – that stirred God. That’s God’s heart. He can’t stand the misery of his people – even when they’re involved in awful sin.

Judges 10:17-18

OK, so the people cry and God is moved by their misery. I’m expecting to see a judge. And so are you. And actually so was Israel. We see their expectation for a deliverer in verses 17 and 18.

[17 ¶ Then the children of Ammon were gathered together, and encamped in Gilead. And the children of Israel assembled themselves together, and encamped in Mizpeh. 18 And the people and princes of Gilead said one to another, What man is he that will begin to fight against the children of Ammon? he shall be head over all the inhabitants of Gilead.]

Judges 11:1-11

Yes, indeed – what man is he? We’re dying to know. The land of Israel east of the Jordan River needs a judge. Someone mighty. A warrior! We’re introduced to him in verse 1 of chapter 11.

11:1 ¶ Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty man of valour, [Oh, good! He sounds like a prime candidate to deliver Israel from her enemies!] and [Or “but”] he was the son of an harlot: [Oh, that’s not so attractive, is it? Well, let’s hear a little more about him.] and Gilead begat Jephthah. 2 And Gilead’s wife bare him [Gilead] sons; and his wife’s sons grew up, and they thrust out Jephthah, and said unto him, Thou shalt not inherit in our father’s house; for thou art the son of a strange woman. 3 Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him. [Got that so far? Jephthah is mighty. But he’s an illegitimate child. And his brothers chase him away so that he won’t receive an inheritance with them. So, he’s somewhat of a reject. But he’s not alone. Some vain or worthless men gather around him in the land of his exile. But those same brothers who chased Jepthah away will be wanting him back soon enough. Now,…]

4 ¶ And it came to pass in process of time, that the children of Ammon made war against Israel. [OK, so back to the story – in other words. Verses 1-3 were sort of an aside to bring us up to speed on the man whom Gildead would call to lead them. Now, let’s listen in on Jepthah’s calling by these very elders who chased him away years ago.] 5 And it was so, that when the children of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob: 6 And they said unto Jephthah, Come, and be our captain, that we may fight with the children of Ammon. 7 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, Did not ye hate me, and expel me out of my father’s house? and why are ye come unto me now when ye are in distress? 8 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon, and be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead. 9 And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead, If ye bring me home again to fight against the children of Ammon, and the LORD deliver them before me, shall I be your head? 10 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, The LORD be witness between us, if we do not so according to thy words. 11 Then Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead, and the people made him head and captain over them: and Jephthah uttered all his words before the LORD in Mizpeh.

There’s a very interesting parallel here in this part of the story. Notice the events between Jepthah and Gilead. Gilead rejects Jephthah. Then Gilead needs Jephthah. Then Gilead says to Jephthah: “We need you.” Jephthah: “You rejected me. Why are you calling on me now after you rejected me?” Gilead: “We’re in trouble. We need you back.” Does that kind of conversation sound familiar? It actually mirrors the dyanmics of Israel and the Lord. Can you see that? And, just like the Lord relented to Israel’s pleas, so does Jepthah.

Judges 11:12-13

Now, let’s watch him deliver Israel.

12 ¶ And Jephthah sent messengers unto the king of the children of Ammon, saying, What hast thou to do with me, that thou art come against me to fight in my land? [That’s interesting. Jepthah starts by talking. He doesn’t just immediately go into battle. He wants to discuss the situation with the enemy. Let’s see how the enemy responds.]

13 And the king of the children of Ammon answered unto the messengers of Jephthah, Because Israel took away my land, when they came up out of Egypt, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and unto Jordan: now therefore restore those lands again peaceably.

Judges 11:14-22

So now, the question becomes – is the king of Ammon right? Did Israel indeed take land from Ammon when they came up out of Egypt? Have you ever thought about that? Well, let’s see what Jepthah thinks.

14 And Jephthah sent messengers again unto the king of the children of Ammon: 15 And said unto him, Thus saith Jephthah, Israel took not away the land of Moab, nor the land of the children of Ammon: [By the way, Moab and Ammon descend from Lot’s two daughters.] 16 But when Israel came up from Egypt, and walked through the wilderness unto the Red sea, and came to Kadesh; 17 Then Israel sent messengers unto the king of Edom, saying, Let me, I pray thee, pass through thy land: but the king of Edom would not hearken thereto. And in like manner they sent unto the king of Moab: but he would not consent: and Israel abode in Kadesh. 18 Then they went along through the wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came by the east side of the land of Moab, and pitched on the other side of Arnon, but came not within the border of Moab: for Arnon was the border of Moab. 19 And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, the king of Heshbon; and Israel said unto him, Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy land into my place. 20 But Sihon trusted not Israel to pass through his coast: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and pitched in Jahaz, and fought against Israel. 21 And the LORD God of Israel delivered Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel, and they smote them: so Israel possessed all the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants of that country. 22 And they possessed all the coasts of the Amorites, from Arnon even unto Jabbok, and from the wilderness even unto Jordan. [Which is the territory that the king of Ammon just mentioned as belonging to his people.]

Wow. That’s a lot of words. Jephthah rehearses Israel’s history as it relates to their coming to take the land of the Amorites.

And I’ll ask now what I asked about the king of Ammon and his statement – is Jephthah right? Who’s speaking the truth here?

There are some complications to this series of events and the retelling of them by these two men. First, we know from Deuteronomy 2:19 that God did not want Israel to take the Ammonites’ land. God said that he reserved that land for the sons of Lot – of whom the Ammonites were descendants. But then in Joshua 13:24-25 we learn that Moses gave the tribe of Gad half of the land of the Ammonites. So at first it sounds like Moses did wrong. Israel wasn’t supposed to take the land. But Moses and Israel took the land. Is that really what happened?

Actually, no. What really happened is this. Israel took the land of the Amorites. Remember – Sihon and Og were Amorites not Ammonites. But then — how does the author of Joshua say that Moses gave Gad half the land of Ammon? It’s because the land of Sihon and Og originally belonged to Ammon. But here’s what happened. Before Moses came up from the wilderness, the Amorites attacked the Ammonites and took part of their their land. This is actually recorded in the secular history of that time.

So, was Jephthah right? Yeah, I think he was. Was the king of Ammon right? Well, there’s no doubt that his people lost that land that became the Amorites’ possession and now for the past 300 years by this point had belonged to the Israelites. That land was theirs. But Israel didn’t take it from the Ammonites. The Amorites did. And then Israel took it from the Amorites.

Judges 11:23-31

Now, after giving this history lesson, Jephthah has some applications he wants the king of Ammon to make. He says…

23 So now the LORD God of Israel hath dispossessed the Amorites from before his people Israel, and shouldest thou possess it? 24 Wilt not thou possess that which Chemosh thy god giveth thee to possess? So whomsoever the LORD our God shall drive out from before us, them will we possess. [Now, I really don’t like Jephthah’s argument here. He’s basically putting Chemosh and Yahweh on the same level. Like – hey Ammon – your god gave you some land. Go ahead and possess it. And our God gave us some land. So we’re going to posses what he’s given to us.” Chemosh shouldn’t even enter the equation! He’s a false god. Forget about Chemosh. And besides, Chemosh isn’t even the god of Ammon. He’s the god of Moab! Milcom or Molech was the god of Ammon. So maybe Jephthah isn’t very well versed in Ammonite mythology. Now, Jephthah continues applying his message…] 25 And now art thou any thing better than Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab? did he ever strive against Israel, or did he ever fight against them, 26 [w]hile Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years? why therefore did ye not recover them within that time? 27 Wherefore I have not sinned against thee, but thou doest me wrong to war against me: the LORD the Judge be judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon. [OK, so that last statement of Jephthah was probably the best. May the Lord be the judge between us. So, here’s what I gather from this. Jephthah knows his Torah. He knows the stories of what God did for his people. And he can even teach others about it. I imagine that was a rare thing in the days of the judges. So, I think that’s commendable. Now, the king of Ammon gets this letter from Jephthah and here’s his reaction…] 28 Howbeit the king of the children of Ammon hearkened not unto the words of Jephthah which he sent him. [No response. So, the talking is over and now it’s time for Jephthah to fight to deliver God’s people.]

29 ¶ Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, [That’s the ½ tribe of Manasseh east of the Jordan.] and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon. [Again, Ammon is east of Gilead, which is east of the Jordan.] 30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands, 31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever [Or actually “whosoever” – it’s the male gender] cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD’S, and I will offer it [Or literally “him” – again male grammatical gender] up for a burnt offering.

Wait, what did Jephthah just do? Why did he make this vow? What or whom is he expecting to meet him when he returns? Maybe you think “a dog”. Well, any kosher Israelite isn’t going to have dogs. A cat maybe? Probably not. What other kind of animal would meet his owner? Cows probably wouldn’t. Would sheep or goats? Even if they would, would they really be living in Jephthah’s house? Would they be coming out his doors? They’re not domesticated. No, I think Jephthah is making a rash unreasonable dangerous vow. His vow to sacrifice whatever or whomever comes to meet him can probably include animals or humans. But why would he even take the chance? Maybe it’ll be a human and not an animal! Why make this vow to the Lord? Couldn’t he have just kept his mouth shut and delivered Israel? And he knows his Torah. He knows the books of Moses. He knows that a vow to the Lord must be kept.

Judges 11:32-33

Well, the battle ensues.

32 ¶ So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the LORD delivered them into his hands. 33 And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.

Wow, that was short. Then apparently, the writer didn’t want to focus on the battle itself. Well, what does he want to focus on?

Judges 11:34-40

Let’s keep reading.

34 ¶ And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house [And we’re mindful of his vow and dreading what or who is going to come out to meet him.], and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter. [Oh no. His only daughter. With her dies Jepthah’s lineage. She comes out to greet him. She’s happy for her father and comes out to celebrate the victory God gave him. But he certainy isn’t happy to see her.] 35 And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth unto the LORD, and I cannot go back. 36 And she said unto him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the LORD, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the LORD hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, even of the children of Ammon. 37 And she said unto her father, Let this thing be done for me: let me alone two months, that I may go up and down upon the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and my fellows. 38 And he said, Go. And he sent her away for two months: and she went with her companions, and bewailed her virginity upon the mountains. 39 And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Israel, 40 That the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year.

So, the question on everyone’s mind is – “did we really just see a judge in Israel sacrifice his daughter as a burnt offering?” As best I can tell, the answer is “Yes”. Some argue that Jephthah’s vow allowed for him to just dedicate his daughter to the Lord’s service. But if that were the case, why would she need two months to lament the fact that she wasn’t going to be married? Couldn’t she have done her lamenting after she was dedicated to the Lord’s service? No, I think what we see here is – in very discreet terms – Jephthah offering his daughter as a sacrifice.

That’s shocking. That couldn’t happen in Israel! That sounds like something the Canaanites would do – offer their children to their gods. Yes, and do you remember what we’re seeing in this book? The Progressive Canaanization of Israel. Through Jephthah’s ridiculous vow he ends up engaging in one of the most abhorrent actions of the Canaanites around Israel – child sacrifice. But couldn’t Jephthah have backed out of his vow? The law doesn’t allow for it. Making a vow to the Lord is serious and breaking it could result in equally serious consequences. But surely God didn’t approve of this! I know he wouldn’t have. But did you notice his silence? He doesn’t say a word as Jephthah makes and then carries out his unreasonable vow. So, God doesn’t approve of this. And at the same time I think we need to remember that there’s not much that God approved of in the days of the Judges.

Judges 9 Commentary

So, here’s the secret – the end of Judges chapter 8 here shows us how Israel did wrong to God. And it’s then in chapter 9 where we see the evil that Israel does to Gideon’s household.

Judges 9:1-2

Now, I’ll say one last thing about this section that we just read. Gideon – the judge – is dead. And now the people again do evil in the sight of the Lord. This pattern sounds familiar, doesn’t it? What would we expect next? Judge dies. People rebel against God. Then God does what? God would send an oppressor. And he does that in this story, too! But what were oppressors like up to this point? They were foreigners. They were external to Israel and brought in by the Lord. But now, the oppressor is internal. The oppressor is an Israelite. The oppressor is… Gideon’s son. Let’s read about him in chapter 9 verses 1 and 2.

9:1 ¶ And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem unto his mother’s brethren, and communed with them, and with all the family of the house of his mother’s father, saying, 2 Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem, Whether is better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, which are threescore and ten persons, reign over you, or that one reign over you? remember also that I am your bone and your flesh.

So, Abimelech goes to Shechem. Shechem is a city in Manasseh – fairly close to Ophrah, the city of Gideon. Abimelech goes to Shechem and starts campaigning to be a king. The people had wanted to make his father, Gideon, a king. Instead Gideon opted for something like the role of a priest. But his son now is actively pursuing being a king.

He talks to his mother’s kinfolk. Remember, Abimelech’s mother is from Shechem. She was the concubine of Gideon.

And Abimelech puts out this warning to the men of Shechem. First, if they don’t make him king then they’ll be ruled by 70 men. That’s a stretch, by the way. Who’s to say that Gideon’s 70 sons would want to be king and rule over Israel? Well, that’s what Abimelech insists will happen. And in that case, they would do well to have just one man to rule over them rather than 70. And by the way – Abimelech points out – I am your relative. So, go tell the men of Shechem this message, Abimelech insists.

Judges 9:3

And so they do in verse 3

3 And his mother’s brethren spake of him in the ears of all the men of Shechem all these words: and their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech; for they said, He is our brother. 4 And they gave him threescore and ten pieces of silver out of the house of Baalberith, wherewith Abimelech hired vain and light persons, which followed him.

So, you and I are still trying to figure Abimelech out. He wants to be king. Maybe that’s OK. And the people of Shechem start following him. Maybe that’s alright. Then the men of Shechem give him money. OK. But the money is from the temple of this Baal-Berith – Israel’s new god. Not OK. And with that money, Abimelech hires vicious scoundrels to follow him. Again, not good.

Judges 9:5

And the picture we have of Abimelech doesn’t get any better from here on out. Read verse 5.

5 And he went unto his father’s house at Ophrah, and slew his brethren the sons of Jerubbaal, being threescore and ten persons, upon one stone: notwithstanding yet Jotham the youngest son of Jerubbaal was left; for he hid himself.

So, Abimelech kills 70 of his brothers on a single stone. Imagine the blood. Imagine the anguish these men – some young men no doubt – experienced. Imagine the screams and cries. And for what? What had these men done? Not a thing. Abimelech is an unfeeling self-seeking man. He’ll stop at nothing to get his way. Even if it means murdering scores of his own brothers to get it. He has truly been Canaanized.

Judges 9:6

You might think that this kind of unbridled brutality and cruelty might make the men of Shechem rethink their decision to make Abimelech their king. But it doesn’t. They go ahead with the proceedings in verse 6

6 And all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo, and went, and made Abimelech king, by the plain of the pillar that was in Shechem.

So, it looks like evil has won. Abimelech is king. The 70 sons of Gideon are dead. Might made right and that’s all there is to it… Or is it? Remember Jotham? He’s the youngest of Gideon’s sons. He escaped. And he’s got a message for the men of Shechem.

Judges 9:7

Let’s read the start of it in verse 7.

7 ¶ And when they told it to Jotham, he went and stood in the top of mount Gerizim, and lifted up his voice, and cried, and said unto them, Hearken unto me, ye men of Shechem, that God may hearken unto you.

Now, Mount Gerizim is to the south of Shechem. It’s ironically the place from which half the tribes of Israel issued the blessings for keeping the Law of Moses back in Joshua’s day. And isn’t it interesting that Jotham is now about to issue – not a blessing – but a curse. A curse for these men who are not keeping the Law of Moses.

Judges 9:8-15

But Jotham is going to introduce this curse with a fable in verses 8 through 15. He says…

8 The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive tree, Reign thou over us. 9 But the olive tree said unto them, Should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?

10 And the trees said to the fig tree, Come thou, and reign over us. 11 But the fig tree said unto them, Should I forsake my sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to be promoted over the trees?

12 Then said the trees unto the vine, Come thou, and reign over us. 13 And the vine said unto them, Should I leave my wine, which cheereth God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?

14 Then said all the trees unto the bramble, Come thou, and reign over us. 15 And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow: and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.

So, what is this fable saying? The trees – fictitiously, of course, this didn’t actually happen – but the trees go out looking for a king. Sounds like the men of Israel. So, they go to the olive tree, but he’s too busy producing fatness. The fig tree – a little smaller than the olive – can’t do it either. He’s busy making fruit. Then the trees kind of lower their sights. They go to the vine. He’s not actually a tree – but hey, the trees really want a king. But not even the vine will rule over them. He’s busy producing wine.

Let’s notice a pattern in these royal candidates so far. Olives, figs, grapes. These are the things produced by these three trees. But the next candidate doesn’t produce anything. He’s a bramble. Good enough only to be burned.

Judges 9:16-21

OK… so what does this mean? Listen to Jotham’s explanation in verses 16 through 21.

16 ¶ Now therefore, if ye have done truly and sincerely, in that ye have made Abimelech king, and if ye have dealt well with Jerubbaal and his house, and have done unto him according to the deserving of his hands; [and then Jotham has enough with pretending as if the men of Shechem acted out of sincerity and truth] 17 (For my father fought for you, and adventured his life far, and delivered you out of the hand of Midian: 18 And ye are risen up against my father’s house this day, and have slain his sons, threescore and ten persons, upon one stone, and have made Abimelech, the son of his maidservant [catch that – Abimelech isn’t even the son of a wife. he’s the sons of a concubine – a woman who was a slave but could have sexual relations with her master], king over the men of Shechem, because he is your brother;) [that’s the only reason – he’s your brother – your relative] 19 If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and with his house this day [which we now know is not the case], then rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you: 20 But if not, let fire come out from Abimelech [the bramble in the fable], and devour the men of Shechem, and the house of Millo; and let fire come out from the men of Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and devour Abimelech. 21 And Jotham ran away, and fled, and went to Beer, and dwelt there, for fear of Abimelech his brother.

And that’s Jotham’s curse on Abimelech and the men of Shechem and this place called Beth-Millo or the House of Millo – which I imagine was a fortress within or close by Shechem.

Judges 9:22-29

And now what we’re going to see for the rest of the chapter is this curse working itself out. We’ll also see more and more of Abimelech’s brutality and vengeful spirit. So, we’ll read with comments here and there. There’s a lot of action and details. It can be confusing. So hold on and we’ll figure this out. Let’s start reading verse 22.

22 ¶ When Abimelech had reigned three years over Israel, 23 Then [after those three years] God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech: [Here’s why God made this happen] 24 That the cruelty done to the threescore and ten sons of Jerubbaal might come, and their blood be laid upon Abimelech their brother, which slew them; and upon the men of Shechem, which aided him in the killing of his brethren. [So, there’s no question as to how God felt about Abimelech’s actions. He hated it.] 25 And the men of Shechem set liers in wait for him [Abimelech] in the top of the mountains, and they robbed all that came along that way by them: and it was told Abimelech.

OK, next we see a new guy come to town right as Shechem has pretty much cut ties with Abimelech.

26 ¶ And Gaal the son of Ebed came with his brethren, and went over to Shechem: and the men of Shechem put their confidence in him. [Now, we don’t know this guy, but it seems like he’s a descendant of Hamor, the father of Shechem. We’ll see that later on.] 27 And they went out into the fields, and gathered their vineyards, and trode the grapes, and made merry, and went into the house of their god, and did eat and drink, and cursed Abimelech. 28 And Gaal the son of Ebed [Who is now probably filled with wine…] said, Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? is not he the son of Jerubbaal? and Zebul his officer? serve the men of Hamor the father of Shechem: for why should we serve him? 29 And would to God this people were under my hand! then would I remove Abimelech. And he said to Abimelech, Increase thine army, and come out.

Let me just explain a little. As I mentioned I believe Gaal is a descendant of Hamor, Shechem’s father. Remember? Shechem is the one who loved Jacob’s daughter. But to confuse matters, there’s a son of Manasseh whose name was Shechem. And he settled in Shechem. So apparently Abimelech descends from this Israelite Shechem – not the son of Hamor. So, Gaal is saying – let’s serve the real Shechem, not these Jewish occupiers.

Judges 9:30-57

30 ¶ And when Zebul the ruler of the city heard the words of Gaal the son of Ebed, his anger was kindled. [That’s because Gaal in his apparent drunkenness belittled Zebul. And Zebul was on Abimelech’s side.] 31 And he [Zebul] sent messengers unto Abimelech privily, saying, Behold, Gaal the son of Ebed and his brethren be come to Shechem; and, behold, they fortify the city against thee. 32 Now therefore up by night, thou and the people that is with thee, and lie in wait in the field: 33 And it shall be, that in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early, and set upon the city: and, behold, when he and the people that is with him come out against thee, then mayest thou do to them as thou shalt find occasion.

34 ¶ And Abimelech rose up, and all the people that were with him, by night, and they laid wait against Shechem in four companies. 35 And Gaal the son of Ebed went out, and stood in the entering of the gate of the city: and Abimelech rose up, and the people that were with him, from lying in wait. 36 And when Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul, Behold, there come people down from the top of the mountains. And Zebul said unto him, Thou seest the shadow of the mountains as if they were men. [He acts like nothing’s wrong.] 37 And Gaal spake again and said, See there come people down by the middle of the land, and another company come along by the plain of Meonenim. [And Zebul can’t hold his secret any longer.] 38 Then said Zebul unto him, Where is now thy mouth, wherewith thou saidst, Who is Abimelech, that we should serve him? is not this the people that thou hast despised? go out, I pray now, and fight with them. 39 And Gaal went out before the men of Shechem, and fought with Abimelech. 40 And Abimelech chased him, and he fled before him, and many were overthrown and wounded, even unto the entering of the gate. 41 And Abimelech dwelt at Arumah: and Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren, that they should not dwell in Shechem.

OK, Abimelech faced Gaal and chased him away. Gaal and his people are out of Shechem now. So you might think Abimelech might relent concerning fighting the city. But that’s not what we see next…

42 ¶ And it came to pass on the morrow, that the people [of Shechem] went out into the field; and they told Abimelech. 43 And he took the people [His people, that is], and divided them into three companies, and laid wait in the field, and looked, and, behold, the people were come forth out of the city; and he rose up against them, and smote them. 44 And Abimelech, and the company that was with him, rushed forward, and stood in the entering of the gate of the city [So as to cut off the men of Shechem from retreating into the city]: and the two other companies ran upon all the people that were in the fields, and slew them. 45 And Abimelech fought against the city all that day; and he took the city, and slew the people that was therein, and beat down the city, and sowed it with salt.

[Now, perhaps while this was happening or just afterwards…] 46 ¶ And when all the men of the tower of Shechem heard that, they entered into an hold of the house of the god Berith. [Remember? The god whom Israel had chosen.] 47 And it was told Abimelech, that all the men of the tower of Shechem were gathered together. 48 And Abimelech gat him up to mount Zalmon, he and all the people that were with him; and Abimelech took an axe in his hand, and cut down a bough from the trees, and took it, and laid it on his shoulder, and said unto the people that were with him, What ye have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done. 49 And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed Abimelech, and put them to the hold, and set the hold on fire upon them; so that all the men of the tower of Shechem died also, about a thousand men and women. [They burned alive. Men and women. Abimelech is a vicious man.]

And with Shechem destroyed you might think Abimelech’s vengeance would be satisfied. But it’s not. He stays on his rampage…

50 ¶ Then went Abimelech to Thebez [which was a city less than 10 miles from Shechem], and encamped against Thebez, and took it. 51 But there was a strong tower within the city, and thither fled all the men and women, and all they of the city, and shut it to them, and gat them up to the top of the tower. 52 And Abimelech came unto the tower, and fought against it, and went hard unto the door of the tower to burn it with fire. [Hey – if it worked in Shechem it’ll work in Thebez, too!] 53 And a certain woman [Just some nameless woman] cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech’s head, and all to brake his skull. [So, lying on the ground with a fractured cranium…] 54 Then he called hastily unto the young man his armourbearer, and said unto him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, that men say not of me, A woman slew him. And his young man thrust him through, and he died. 55 And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead, they departed every man unto his place. [No mourning. No concern. Was there even a burial? We don’t know.]

But here’s the point of the whole story that we just read…

56 Thus God rendered the wickedness of Abimelech, which he did unto his father, in slaying his seventy brethren: 57 And all the evil of the men of Shechem did God render upon their heads: and upon them came the curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal.

And isn’t that what we just saw? Abimelech did wickedly in slaying his 70 brothers. One of those brothers escaped and issued a curse on Abimelech and the men of Shechem who strengthened him to commit these murders. And for most of this chapter we’ve seen this curse unfold. Fire – metaphorically speaking – has come out from Abimelech and consumed the men of Shechem and vice versa.

Now, what does this story teach us? Several things. I’ll mention a few.

1) Abimelech takes the bad elements that we saw in Gideon – like personal vengeance and brutality – and he raises it to the Nth degree. Fathers and Mothers here – may the Lord help us to walk in the Spirit and not produce the deeds of the flesh. You and I both know that our children will only magnify those sins.

2) God sees and knows everything. Isn’t it funny that Abimelech asks the young man to slay him so that no one knows that a woman actually killed him? Well, anyone who knows this story knows the facts. We weren’t fooled by Abimelech. We know what happened because God reported it. And he alone knows and sees all.

3) Things are getting worse and worse in Israel. Gideon definitely had his faults. But he did have some faith and God used him to deliver his people. Gideon’s son wasn’t even a judge and he didn’t deliver God’s people – he oppressed them. The people are still serving false gods. Things are getting worse, not better. And next time we’ll continue on this downward spiral with the story of Jephthah, the son of a prostitute who may have actually sacrificed his own daughter. We’ll see next time.

Judges 8 Commentary

Open your Bibles to the 8th chapter of the book of Judges.

We’re going to be talking about Abimelech today. And if I were to take a poll here today I imagine that most of us don’t know very much about this character – Abimelech – or his story.

When we study Bible stories you and I might struggle with finding the significance of a particular story. You generally understand what is being said. But you might not understand why.

This story today is a little different, though. Determining the significance is just as difficult as it is anywhere else in the Bible. But the story about Abimelech is even difficult to figure out what’s going on and who’s doing what and where. Forget about struggling with the significance – we just need to know what’s actually going. So, hopefully we’ll figure out what’s going on this morning as we study this story.

In order to get to the story of Abimelech though, we need to put it in context. At the beginning of the book of Judges, Joshua passes off the scene and so do the elders who outlived him. Then there arises a new generation that doesn’t know the Lord personally. And as a result they don’t conquer the land that God had given them. That’s chapter 1.

Well, why did they not conquer the land? Chapter 2 tells us – well, actually the Lord himself tells Israel – that he’s not delivering the Canaanites into their hands anymore. Why? Because they had forsaken him by marrying pagans and worshiping their new spouses’ false deities. And so from chapter 3 onward we’ve seen several judges – some major like Othniel, Ehud, Barak, and Gideon and some minor like Shamgar. These judges are charged with saving or delivering God’s people from their enemies.

Well, where do these enemies come from anyway? Why are they around? Remember – it’s actually the Lord himself who sends the enemies to his people. Israel sins. And so God chastens them by sending enemies to oppress them. Why? – Because he’s mean and unloving? No – just the opposite. God wants his people to turn back to him with all their heart. Israel won’t turn to God when times are good and it looks like their idols are serving them well. So God needs to shake them up so that they’d see that these gods of theirs can’t deliver them. Only the Lord can. And the Lord does deliver Israel through these saviors – these deliverers – these judges.

And these judges start off pretty good. We have Othniel who was related to Caleb the faithful man of Judah. Then we had Ehud. And as we read through the stories of these two judges it was hard to find fault with them.

But then we got to the next judge – Deborah. Oh wait, no, I mean Barak. It was hard to tell which of them was the judge, wasn’t it? That’s because Barak didn’t seem real excited about being a judge. Deborah – on God’s behalf – called him to save God’s people. But Barak refused to go unless a lady went with him. That was kind of embarrassing for him.

And then our last two lessons have focused on this judge called Gideon. He’s not emboldened to judge Israel by the presence of a woman. He’s not even emboldened by God promises to be with him. Gideon wasn’t even encouraged by the fleece incident. He needed to overhear the dream of a pagan Midianite in order to go into battle.

So Gideon was a fearful man. Hebrews 11 tells us he had faith – and, my, how small was that faith. And yet it was faith – Gideon went into battle facing overwhelming opposition – 300 men to 135,000 Midianites. But the Lord delivered Israel through Gideon and his 300 men.

And you wish that was the whole story. But it isn’t. Gideon showed his tendency to deliver Israel only when it was in his interest – especially when personal vengeance was involved. So, he doubted and feared whenever God told him to do something. But when Gideon had the opportunity to avenge himself for wrongs done to his own person then he was bold as a lion. But even in his boldness he showed weakness and fear.

Judges 8:30-32

Nevertheless, Gideon did deliver Israel from the massive army of Midian. And the Israelites understandably wanted to make him their king. They said they wanted him, his son, and his son’s son to rule over them. But Gideon refused. Instead – astoundingly – he made an ephod which all Israel worshipped. And then he did something equally as bizarre. Let’s read about it in chapter 8 verses 30 through 32.

KJV Judges 8:30 And Gideon had threescore and ten sons of his body begotten: for he had many wives. 31 And his concubine that was in Shechem, she also bare him a son, whose name he called Abimelech. 32 And Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age, and was buried in the sepulchre of Joash his father, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.

Well, having 70 sons is a little bizarre. So is having so many wives. But that’s not what I was thinking. What’s strangest to me is the name that Gideon gave to the son of his concubine. Gideon named that son Abimelech. Abi means “my father”. OK – so the name of Gideon’s boy is going to say something about the boy’s father – Gideon. And catch this – melech means “king”. “My father the king” or “my father is the king”. But I thought Gideon didn’t want to be a king. Why would he give his boy a name like that? Maybe Gideon thought that by having this ephod with all Israel coming to it he could sort of be like a king without actually having the troublesome responsibility of leading God’s people and bearing with their troubles.

Judges 8:33-35

Whatever the case, Gideon eventually dies. And when that happens, things go from not too bad to worse in verses 33 through 35.

33 ¶ And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel turned again, and went a whoring after Baalim, and made Baalberith their god. 34 And the children of Israel remembered not the LORD their God, who had delivered them out of the hands of all their enemies on every side: 35 Neither shewed they kindness to the house of Jerubbaal, namely, Gideon, according to all the goodness which he had shewed unto Israel.

So, Gideon dies and the people go right back to the Baals. They choose one of them – Baal-Berith – to be their god. And the Israelites are accused of two great evils in this passage.

First, they forgot God. It’s obvious that they didn’t forgot the name Yahweh. They didn’t forget the names of all the enemies that the Lord delivered them from in times past. They acted in such a way that – if you didn’t know better – would make you think that they truly didn’t know a thing about the God of Israel.

That’s a problem. But it’s not Israel’s only problem. They’re also accused of not showing kindness to Gideon. By the way – don’t let Gideon’s other name throw you — Jerubbaal. It’s the name his father gave him after Gideon pulled down Baal’s altar.

Alright, so Israel is accused of not showing kindness to Gideon. But what do you think about that? I mean the fact that Israel went a whoring after Baal-Berith doesn’t really indicate to me that they had done wrong to Gideon’s memory.

So, here’s the secret – the end of chapter 8 here shows us how Israel did wrong to God. And it’s then in chapter 9 where we see the evil that Israel does to Gideon’s household.